Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Recently, molecular targeted therapies have shown promising results in the management of lung cancer. These therapies require a clear understanding of the relevant pathways that drive carcinogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling axis is one such pathway that plays a central role in normal cellular function. Alterations in this pathway have been found in many cancers. In this review article, we focus on the role of this pathway in lung cancer. We present the molecular structure of FGFR, the interaction of the receptor with its ligands (the fibroblast growth factors), its downstream signaling, and aberrations in the FGFR pathway. We also discuss clinical trials involving selective and multikinase FGFR inhibitors in lung cancer treatment.
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