BACKGROUND: The prevalence of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) in patients with cervical artery dissection (CAD) is unknown. Our objectives were to assess the risk of CAD recurring as a stroke or a transient ischemic attack and the association of these events with FMD. METHODS: We prospectively included and followed 103 consecutive patients who had been admitted for a CAD. The median follow-up was 4 years (range 4 months to 10 years). The main criteria for inclusion were a mural hematoma demonstrated by cervical magnetic resonance imaging and/or signs suggesting CAD on 2 other investigations. FMD was diagnosed on the so-called string of beads pattern by digital subtraction angiography. RESULTS: Five patients had CAD recurrence (60% occurred late). Four of these 5 patients had FMD. In 4 patients, CAD recurrence involved another cervical artery. CONCLUSION: The rate of symptomatic CAD recurrence was 1% per year and was often related to FMD.
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