Individuals within complex social groups often experience reduced reproduction owing to coercive or suppressive actions of other group members. However, the nature of social and ecological environments that favour individual acceptance of such costs of sociality is not well understood. Taxa with short periods of direct social interaction, such as some communal egg layers, are interesting models for study of the cost of social interaction because opportunities to control reproduction of others are limited to brief periods of reproduction. To understand the conditions under which communal egg layers are in fitness conflict and thus likely to influence each other's reproduction, we develop an optimality model involving a brood guarding 'host' and a nonguarding disperser, or 'egg dumper'. The model shows that when, where intermediate-sized broods have highest survival, lifetime inclusive fitnesses of hosts and dumpers are often optimized with different numbers of dumped eggs. We hypothesize that resolution of this conflict may involve attempts by one party to manipulate the other's reproduction. To test model predictions we used a lace bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) that shows both hosts and egg dumpers as well as increased offspring survival in response to communal egg laying. We found that egg-dumping lace bugs oviposit a number of eggs that very closely matches predicted fitness optimum for hosts rather than predicted optimum of dumpers. This result suggests that dumpers pay a social cost for communal egg laying, a cost that may occur through host suppression of dumper reproduction. Although dumper allocation of eggs is thus sub-optimal for dumpers, previous models show that the decision to egg dump is nevertheless evolutionarily stable, possibly because hosts permit just enough dumper oviposition to encourage commitment to the behaviour.
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