Background: Number of diabetic patients under public primary care in Hong Kong rose from 150,157 (2009) to 173,015 (2013). This study aimed to track the 5-year change of their outcomes and care standard after the introduction of quality enhancement programmes. Methods: Longitudinal study was conducted on a group of diabetic patients who received continuous care under public primary care between 2009 and 2013. Socio-demographic and clinical data was retrieved from central database. The standard of care in terms of proportion of patients achieving haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) target levels, mean parameter changes, and 5-year cumulative incidence of major complications were assessed. Outcomes between 2009 and 2013 were compared by McNemar's test for proportion of patients treated to targets and paired t-test for continuous outcome parameters. Results: A group of 127,977 diabetic patients who had continuous follow-up between 2009 and 2013 were assessed. A significantly higher proportions of patients achieving targets of HbA1c (1.0 or 1.3 mmol/L) were observed (p < 0.001). There was a significant drop in the mean values of HbA1c (7.2-7.0 %), SBP (136.9-131.3 mmHg), DBP (75.4-72.1 mmHg), LDL-C (3.1-2.4 mmol/L), triglyceride (1.7-1.4 mmol/L), and body mass index (25.6-25.3 kg/m(2)). More patients (0.6 % raised to 3.5 %) used insulin in addition to their oral anti-diabetic drugs for their management, and a significant boost (from 9.0 to 55.0 %) was on statin use. 5-year cumulative incidence of any major diabetic complication was 6.2 %. Conclusions: Standard of public primary care for diabetic patients enhanced from 2009 to 2013, as reflected by the improvement in outcomes of care. It could be related to the implementation of the territory-wide quality enhancement programmes in all public primary care clinics since 2009, with coverage increasing from 3.1 % (2009) to 81.9 % (2013).
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