Gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) network oscillations have been observed in the hippocampus during several behavioral paradigms in which they are often modulated by a theta frequency (4-12 Hz) oscillation. Interneurons of the hippocampus have been shown to be crucially involved in rhythms generation, and several subtypes with distinct anatomy and physiology have been described. In particular, the oriens lacunosum-moleculare (O-LM) interneurons were shown to synapse on distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and to spike preferentially at theta frequency, even in the presence of gamma-field oscillations. O-LM cells have also recently been shown to present higher axonal ramification in the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. By using a hippocampal network model composed of pyramidal cells and two types of interneurons (O-LM and basket cells), we show here that the O-LM interneurons lead to gamma coherence between anatomically distinct cell modules. We thus propose that this could be a mechanism for coupling longitudinally distant cells excited by entorhinal cortex inputs into gamma-coherent assemblies.
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