Inexpensive and female-controlled pre-exposure prophylaxis strategies to prevent mucosal transmission of the virus, is urgently needed with the rising prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV2) infections in women. Zidovudine-loaded bioadhesive vaginal gel may become one of the very useful strategies, as it can be used not only for controlled release but also for enhancing bioavailability. Drug delivery through vaginal gel is a promising area for continued research with the aim of achieving controlled release with enhanced bioavailability over longer periods of time. The aim of the study was to develop a newer prolong releasing Zidovudine (AZT) bioadhesive vaginal gel to treat HIV infections with increased patient convenience. AZT-loaded bioadhesive vaginal gel was prepared successfully by using cold mechanical method. F3 formulation containing carbopol-HPMC (1:3) was selected and evaluated in order to achieve objectives of this study. In vitro drug release study of F3 showed in 24 h drug released following case I Fickian (n ≤ 0.5) transport mechanism, and in vivo drug release was found much better (T(max)), (C(max)), and bioavailability (F) comparison with oral pour drug solution. It was also showed good extrudability, spreadability, and bioadhesive strength. A generalized protocol, for the further research, in this area will surely expected to yield significant outcome with improved drug delivery system.
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