Full-field strain measurements are applied in studies of textile deformability during composite processing: (1) in testing of shear and tensile deformations of textiles (picture frame, bias and biaxial extension test) as an "optical extensometer", allowing accurate assessment of the sample deformation, which may differ significantly from the deformation applied by the testing device; (2) to study mechanisms of the textile deformation on the scale of the textile unit cell and of the individual yarns (meso- and micro-scale full-field strain measurements); (3) to measure the 3D-deformed shape and the distribution of local deformations (e.g., shear angles) of a textile reinforcement after draping, providing input data for the validation of material drape models and for the prediction of the consolidated part performance via structural finite element analysis. This paper discusses these three applications of the full-field strain measurements, providing examples of studies of deformability of woven (glass, glass/PP) and non-crimp (carbon) textile reinforcements. The authors conclude that optical full-field strain techniques are the preferable (sometimes the only) way of assuring correct deformation measurements during tensile or shear tests of textile. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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