Extracellular freeze-induced desiccation tolerance was observed by diameter variations on walnut in the field. To evaluate frost acclimation, stem segments were submitted to various freezing experiments in a climatic chamber. Reversible stem shrinkage was obtained for living tissue, but not for autoclaved tissue an injured tissue. In this case, swelling was observed with the freeze due to water expansion with the liquid solid phase change. Similar swelling was observed during early November for stem segments. Given that the diameter fluctuation patterns were dramatically different for acclimated versus non-acclimated plants, and for living versus autoclaved tissues LVDT sensors could represent a novel, non-invasive approach to testing frost hardiness. Practical conditions to apply the Gelista((TM)) method to test the temperature of freezing injury was defined.
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