© The Author(s) 2014. Chinese American women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are more vulnerable to poor diabetes outcomes than men because immigrant status, ethnicity, and economics intersect with gender to diminish disease management opportunities. We explored gender differences in factors associated with diabetes management at intake and after treatment with a behavioral intervention in first-generation Chinese American immigrants. A sample of 178 Chinese Americans with T2DM was enrolled in a single-cohort, repeated-measures delayed-treatment trial. Data were collected at baseline, 8, 16, 24, and 32 weeks with 6-week treatment provided after 16 weeks. Gender differences at baseline and gender by treatment interactions were noted. Women at baseline reported significantly worse depressive symptoms and general health. Significant gender by treatment interactions were observed for diabetes self-efficacy, bicultural efficacy, family instrumental support, and diabetes quality of life–satisfaction. Only women showed improvement, suggesting women benefited more from the intervention in psychosocial factors related to diabetes management.
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