Gender Differences in Math and Verbal Self-Concept, Performance Expectations, and Motivation

  • Skaalvik S
  • Skaalvik E
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Abstract

Gender differences in mathematics and verbal self-concept, performance expectations, intrinsic motivation, and goal orientation were examined in 4 samples of Norwegian students. A total of 907 students in 6th grade (n = 277), 9th grade (n = 239), 11th grade (n = 264), and adult students enrolled in first year of senior high school (n = 127) participated in the study. Findings indicated that gender differences continue to exist. Male students had higher self-concept, performance expectations, intrinsic motivation, and self-enhancing ego orientation in mathematics than did female students, whereas female students had higher intrinsic motivation for learning language than did male students. Older students had higher verbal than mathematics self-concept regardless of gender.

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Authors

  • Sidsel Skaalvik

  • Einar M. Skaalvik

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