Bufo viridis is one of the most widespread Old World amphibian species. The presence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid populations within the B. viridis complex is unique among amphibians, and has resulted in considerable scientific attention. Surprisingly therefore little is known concerning the phylogeography of the group. In this study 35 individuals including widespread populations were analysed for partial 12S and 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA. Three divergent lineages were determined; one in North Africa and Sicily, another in Europe, and a third in Sardinia and Mallorca. Relationships between the three lineages were not well supported. A tetraploid individual, typically assigned to B. danatensis, nested within the European lineage based on these markers. No evidence for anthropogenic introductions to Mediterranean islands was found, although further sampling is needed to fully determine the origins of the Balearic populations.
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