Geographic information is defined as information linking locations on or near the Earth’s surface to properties of those locations. The technologies for handling such information include GPS, remote sensing, and geographic information systems. Behind the technologies are a set of fundamental, researchable issues whose study has been termed geographic information science. I review these technologies under four headings: positioning, data acquisition, data dissemination, and analysis. Recent research has led to substantial advances in specific areas of GIScience. I outline five future scenarios that are all technically feasible given current technology, and discuss the research advances that will be needed to make them a reality. In the conclusion I comment on the changing needs of education in geographic information systems and science.
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