Rio de Janeiro is considered as the most important entry point for dengue viruses in Brazil. Using isoenzyme markers, we investigated the genetic structure of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti sampled at three-month intervals in 14 districts in Rio de Janeiro from December 2002 to December 2003. We detected high levels of genetic differentiation (i.e. high F(ST) values and significant P values), which tended to persist throughout the year. The species does not take advantage of routes and railways to disperse. Genetic structuring was higher in the rainy season, suggesting low dispersion of Ae. aegypti at this time of year when all dengue epidemics have been reported in the city.
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