Because involving lower echelon employees in decision making requires risk on the part ofman- agers, we suggest that certain contextual features must be in place for managers to be more will- ing to do so.We hypothesize that managers’trust in employees, and two impersonal substitutes for trust—performance information and incentives—will increase managers’ involvement of lower echelon employees in decision making. Managers’involvement of lower echelon employ- ees is further hypothesized to enhance organizational performance. Path analysis of survey data from the automotive industry provides support for the hypotheses.
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