A global look at time: A 24-country study of the equivalence of the zimbardo time perspective inventory

  • Sircova A
  • Van De Vijver F
  • Osin E
 et al. 
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In this article, we assess the structural equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) across 26 samples from 24 countries (N = 12,200). The ZTPI is proven to be a valid and reliable index of individual differences in time perspective across five temporal categories: Past Negative, Past Positive, Present Fatalistic, Present Hedonistic, and Future. We obtained evidence for invariance of 36 items (out of 56) and also the five-factor structure of ZTPI across 23 countries. The short ZTPI scales are reliable for country-level analysis, whereas we recommend the use of the full scales for individual-level analysis. The short version of ZTPI will further promote integration of research in the time perspective domain in relation to many different psycho-social processes.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Cross-cultural research
  • Equivalence
  • Time perspective
  • ZTPI
  • Zimbardo time perspective inventory

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