" Grounded " Technology Integration: Instructional Planning Using Curriculum-Based Activity Type Taxonomies

  • Harris J
  • Hofer M
  • Schmidt D
 et al. 
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technological pedagogical content knowledge (tpck or tpack) – the highly practical professional educational knowledge that enables and supports technology integration – is comprised of teachers' concurrent and interdependent curriculum content, general pedagogy, and technological un-derstanding. teachers' planning – which expresses teachers' professional knowledge (including tpack) in pragmatic ways --is situated, contextually sensitive, routinized, and ac-tivity-based. to assist with technology integration, therefore, 574 Harris, Hofer, Schmidt, Blanchard, Young, Grandgenett, and Olphen we suggest using what is understood from research about teachers' knowledge and instructional planning to form an approach to curriculum-based technology integration that is predicated upon teachers combining technologically support-ed learning activity types selected from content-keyed activ-ity type taxonomies. in this article, we describe this approach to curriculum-based technology integration, illustrating it with overviews of and examples from six curriculum-based learning activity types taxonomies that have been developed to date. We invite our readers to vet and use these materials, which are available on the activity types Wiki (http://activi-tytypes.wmwikis.net/). as Bruner, dewey, and schwab first noted decades ago, school cur-riculum content is knowledge from multiple disciplines that has been trans-lated to and transformed within social contexts, especially schooling (deng, 2007). thinking – and therefore learning – differs quite dramatically by dis-cipline (donald, 2002). given its disciplinary roots, knowledge for effec-tive teaching within each curriculum-based content area is similarly differ-entiated; knowing how to teach high school-level history differs quite dra-matically from knowing how to teach first-grade reading or middle-school algebra. this specialized professional knowledge is what shulman (1986, 1987) termed pedagogical content knowledge: in part, the discipline-specif-ic knowledge necessary to teach effectively in different content areas. Mishra and koehler (2006, 2008) have extended the construct of peda-gogical content knowledge to include the technological knowledge neces-sary to teach effectively with digital tools and resources in different content areas. they note that knowledge of educational technologies' characteristics and operation is insufficient when planning to use the tools to assist stu-dents' learning. instead, these authors argue, teachers' pedagogical content knowledge must expand to include how to select and use a broad range of educational technologies appropriately within different content areas and teaching approaches. this technological pedagogical content knowledge (tpack) is complex, interdependent, situated, dynamic, and influenced by many contextual factors.

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  • Judith B Harris

  • Mark J Hofer

  • Denise A Schmidt

  • Margaret R Blanchard

  • Carl Y Young

  • Marcela Van Olphen

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