GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes and the genotoxicity of hydroquinone in human lymphocytes

  • Silva M
  • Gaspar J
  • Silva I
 et al. 
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Abstract

Hydroquinone is a myelotoxin that is found in many foods and is also formed through the metabolism of benzene. Human exposure to benzene is associated with the development of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia. Hydroquinone is genotoxic in several in vitro and in vivo test systems, inducing micronuclei (MN), sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), and chromosomal aberrations. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of polymorphic enzymes involved in the conjugation of reactive chemical intermediates to soluble forms. These enzymes play a key role in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and the polymorphic genes GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 have been associated with the differential metabolism of several genotoxicants. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms on the frequency of MN and SCE induced by hydroquinone in human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were obtained from 15 healthy non-smoking donors, and their GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes determined. Treatment of cultures of the lymphocytes with hydroquinone significantly increased the overall frequencies of MN and SCE (P

Author-supplied keywords

  • GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1
  • Genetic palymorphisms
  • Glutathiane S-transferase
  • Hydroquinane
  • Micranuclei
  • Sister chromatid exchanges

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Authors

  • María Do Céu Silva

  • Jorge Gaspar

  • Isabel Duarte Silva

  • Ana Faber

  • José Rueff

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