The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and histologically the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with a bioresorbable membrane barrier. Fifty-two intrabony periodontal defects were treated according to the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) with a bioresorbable membrane. Results were evaluated by assessing probing pocket depth, recession of the gingival margin, and clinical attachment level at baseline and at 1 and 2 years after therapy. Bone level changes were evaluated radiographically. The postoperative phase was uneventful in all cases. There was a mean probing pocket depth reduction from 8.4 to 3.6 mm, a mean increase of gingival margin recession from 1.5 to 3.0 mm, and a mean clinical attachment level change from 9.9 to 6.5 mm. Mean attachment gain was 3.4 mm. Two teeth scheduled for extraction were also treated with the same bioresorbable membrane. The histologic analysis 6 months after treatment revealed the formation of new connective tissue attachment and new alveolar bone in both cases. Based on the histologic findings it can be concluded that the clinical improvements following GTR with this type of bioresorbable membrane may represent, at least in part, true periodontal regeneration.
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