Gut microbiota and probiotics in chronic liver diseases

  • C. C
  • A. T
  • A. D
 et al. 
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Abstract

There is a strong relationship between liver and gut: the portal system receives blood from the gut, and intestinal blood content activates liver functions. The liver, in turn, affects intestinal functions through bile secretion into the intestinal lumen. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Bacterial overgrowth, immune dysfunction, alteration of the luminal factors, and altered intestinal permeability are all involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis, such as infections, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and renal failure. Probiotics have been suggested as a useful integrative treatment of different types of chronic liver damage, for their ability to augment intestinal barrier function and prevent bacterial translocation. This review summarizes the main literature findings about the relationships between gut microbiota and chronic liver disease, both in the pathogenesis and in the treatment by probiotics of the liver damage. 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *chronic liver disease/et [Etiology]
  • *intestine flora
  • *probiotic agent/cb [Drug Combination]
  • *probiotic agent/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • *probiotic agent/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • *probiotic agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • *probiotic agent/pd [Pharmacology]
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Bifidobacterium bifidum
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Lactobacillus
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Lactobacillus delbrueckii
  • Lactobacillus helveticus
  • Lactobacillus johnsonii
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • Streptococcus thermophilus
  • VSL3/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • VSL3/pd [Pharmacology]
  • alcohol abstinence
  • alcohol liver cirrhosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • alcohol liver disease/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • alcohol liver disease/et [Etiology]
  • alcohol psychosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • alcohol psychosis/th [Therapy]
  • alcohol/to [Drug Toxicity]
  • alcoholic fatty liver/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • alcoholic fatty liver/et [Etiology]
  • alcoholic pancreatitis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • antibiotic agent/cb [Drug Combination]
  • antibiotic agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • ascites/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • bacteremia
  • bacterial growth
  • bacterial infection/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • bacterial infection/th [Therapy]
  • bacterial peritonitis
  • bacterial pneumonia
  • bacterial translocation
  • bacterium lipopolysaccharide
  • bioflorin
  • chronic hepatitis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • decompensated liver cirrhosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • drug efficacy
  • endothelial nitric oxide synthase/ec [Endogenous C
  • endotoxemia/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • endotoxin/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • enteric feeding
  • gamma interferon/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • hepatic encephalopathy/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • hepatic encephalopathy/et [Etiology]
  • hepatitis B/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • hepatitis C/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • human
  • immune response
  • inducible nitric oxide synthase/ec [Endogenous Com
  • inflammation
  • insulin resistance
  • interferon/cb [Drug Combination]
  • interferon/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • intestine motility
  • intestine mucosa permeability
  • lactitol/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • lactitol/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • lactitol/pd [Pharmacology]
  • liver cirrhosis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • liver cirrhosis/et [Etiology]
  • liver injury/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • liver injury/th [Therapy]
  • matrix metalloproteinase/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • metabolic syndrome X/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • metabolic syndrome X/et [Etiology]
  • metronidazole/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • metronidazole/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • neuronal nitric oxide synthase/ec [Endogenous Comp
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver/et [Etiology]
  • nonhuman
  • obesity
  • obstructive jaundice/et [Etiology]
  • oxidative stress
  • parenteral nutrition
  • pathogenesis
  • placebo
  • pleura empyema
  • portal hypertension
  • priority journal
  • procollagen/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  • randomized controlled trial (topic)
  • review
  • ribavirin/cb [Drug Combination]
  • ribavirin/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • selenium
  • steatosis/et [Etiology]
  • treatment response
  • tumor necrosis factor alpha/ec [Endogenous Compoun
  • unclassified drug
  • upper gastrointestinal bleeding/et [Etiology]
  • urinary tract infection
  • virus hepatitis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • virus hepatitis/et [Etiology]
  • vitamin supplementation

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Authors

  • Cesaro C.

  • Tiso A.

  • Del Prete A.

  • Cariello R.

  • Tuccillo C.

  • Cotticelli G.

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