This paper is concerned with application of the h-adaptive finite element method to dynamic analysis of a pile in liquefiable soil considering large deformation. In finite element analysis of pile behavior in liquefiable soil during an earthquake, especially considering large deformation of liquefied ground, error due to discretization in the zone near the pile becomes very large. Our purpose was to refine the approximation of the finite element method. The updated Lagrangian formulation and a cyclic elasto-plastic model based on the kinematic hardening rule were adopted to deal with the nonlinearity of the soil. The mixed finite element and finite difference methods together with the u-p formulation and Biot's two-phase mixture theory were used. To improve the accuracy and increase the efficiency of finite element analysis, an h-adaptive scheme that included a posteriori error estimation and h-version mesh refinement was applied to the analysis. The calculated results of effective stress were smoothed locally by the extrapolation method and smoothed stress was used to calculate the L2norm of the effective stress error in the last step of the calculation of each time increment. The mesh was refined by a fission procedure based on the indication of the error estimate As a numerical example, a soil-pile interaction system loaded cyclically was analyzed by our method. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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