The invasion of tsetse flies into the Adamawa plateau occurred in the 1950s and resulted in high mortality in cattle due to trypanosomosis and massive emigration of livestock owners from the infested regions. Three species of tsetse flies have been recorded: Glossina morsitans submorsitans, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Between 1960 and 1975 the Cameroonian Government organized large-scale trypanocidal treatment campaigns of cattle. Later on, tsetse control activities were initiated. Between 1976 and 1994, several aerial spraying campaigns were carried out which resulted in the clearance of 3,200,000 hectares of pastures. Unfortunately, reinvasion of tsetse flies in several cleared areas could not be avoided. To prevent reinvasion of tsetse flies from Koutine Plain (north of the Adamawa plateau), a barrier consisting of screens and traps was set in place. However, bush fires destroyed most of the screens and traps soon after deployment in 1994. Thereafter, the barrier was replaced by a program of insecticide treatments of cattle. Cross-sectional and longitudinal parasitological and entomological surveys in 2004-05 showed that the barrier of insecticide-treated cattle had succeeded in keeping the plateau relatively tsetse free. The incidence of trypanosomosis in cattle on the plateau was reported to vary between 0 and 2.1%. Recently, however, an alarmingly high prevalence of trypanocidal drug resistance was observed in the Faro and Deo division. Within the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC), Cameroon is currently preparing a joint project with Chad, the Central African Republic and Nigeria to eradicate tsetse flies and trypanosomosis.
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