and active duty service members. TBI can cause a wide range of impairments of motor strength, coordina- tion, and balance as well as sensory defi cits in all domains. However, exten- sive research shows that long-term outcomes for persons with TBI are largely determined by cognitive impairment and neurobehavioral disturbances. Cognitive impairments are seen primarily in memory, speed of cognitive processing, and integrative functions (executive skills). Neurobehavioral sequelae of TBI can range from agitation, irritability, impulsivity, depression, and anxiety to more subtle impairments in self-awareness and social com- munication. These latter diffi culties may be perceived as volitional by family and close others and even by healthcare providers so that persons with injury may be blamed and even shunned for defi cits caused by the injuries they have sustained. For these reasons, particularly in the post-acute period, neuropsy- chologists and other behavioral health and cognitive care providers are well positioned to assess and intervene on key defi cits caused by TBI and to improve outcomes for persons with TBI.
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