Severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis was observed in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and a lion (Panthera leo). Both animals developed acute depression, anorexia, and bloody diarrhea several days before death. Small and large intestines were diffusely congested, edematous, necrotic, and filled with hemorrhagic fluid, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and congested. Pure and abundant growth of gram-positive bacilli was obtained in culture under anaerobic conditions from the livers of both felines. Identification of highly virulent Clostridium perfringens Type A was based on pathologic lesions, hemolytic patterns, morphologic structure, and polymerase chain reaction. Animal inoculation assays indicated that C. perfringens Type A played an important role in the pathogenesis of both felines.
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