Herpesvirus assembly: an update

  • Alcami A
  • Koszinowski U
  • Atanasiu D
 et al. 
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Abstract

Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent pathways control the production of IFNalphabeta, a key cytokine in innate immune control of viruses including mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The lymphotoxin (LT) alphabeta-LTbeta receptor signaling pathway is also critical for defense against MCMV and thought to aid in the IFNbeta response. We find that upon MCMV infection, mice deficient for lymphotoxin (LT)alphabeta signaling cannot mount the initial part of a biphasic IFNalphabeta response, but show normal levels of IFNalphabeta during the sustained phase of infection. Significantly, the LTalphabeta-dependent, IFNalphabeta response is independent of TLR signaling. B, but not T, cells expressing LTbeta are essential for promoting the initial IFNalphabeta response. LTbetaR expression is required strictly in splenic stromal cells for initial IFNalphabeta production to MCMV and is dependent upon the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK). These results reveal a TLR-independent innate host defense strategy directed by B cells in communication with stromal cells via the LTalphabeta cytokine system.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *Adaptive Immunity
  • *Adoptive Transfer
  • *Cattle Diseases/microbiology
  • *Critical Illness
  • *Disease Models
  • *Ethnic Groups
  • *Evolution
  • *Gene Expression
  • *Genes
  • *Genetic Variation
  • *Genome
  • *Genomics
  • *Horse Diseases/microbiology
  • *Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • *Immunity
  • *Immunocompetence
  • *Luminescent Proteins/*immunology/isolation & puri
  • *Membrane Fusion
  • *Muromegalovirus
  • *Muromegalovirus/isolation & purification/pathogen
  • *Mutation
  • *Proteome
  • *Rodent Diseases/microbiology
  • *Trans-Activators
  • *Transcription
  • *Viral Load
  • *Viral Proteins
  • *Viral Tropism
  • *Virus Activation
  • *Virus Assembly
  • *Virus Latency
  • *Virus Replication
  • 80 and over
  • Acute Disease
  • Adaptor Proteins
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alveolar/virology
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animal
  • Animal/*immunology/mortality/pat
  • Animal/blood/*microbiology/patho
  • Animals
  • Antibodies
  • Antibody Formation
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Antigen Presentation/drug effects/*immunology
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism/vir
  • Antigens
  • Antiviral Agents/*therapeutic use
  • Antiviral Agents/adverse effects/therapeutic use
  • Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis/genetics/immunology
  • Autoimmune Diseases/immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes/metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • Biological Markers
  • Blotting
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects/*immun
  • Bone Marrow/microbiology
  • Bone Marrow/virology
  • C-Type
  • CD34
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology
  • Capsid Proteins/*metabolism
  • Capsid/chemistry
  • Catalytic/*metabolism
  • Cattle
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival/immunology
  • Cells
  • Cellular
  • Cellular/genetics
  • Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/*physiopatho
  • Centrifugation
  • Chemokines/biosynthesis
  • Child
  • Chromatography
  • Chronic Disease
  • Classification
  • Confocal
  • Congenital
  • Cowpox virus/isolation & purification
  • CpG Islands/immunology
  • Cricetinae
  • Crosses
  • Cryoelectron Microscopy
  • Cultured
  • Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology
  • Cytokine
  • Cytokines
  • Cytokines/*pharmacology
  • Cytokines/analysis/*biosynthesis
  • Cytokines/biosynthesis
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*complications/virology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*diagnosis/drug therapy
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*epidemiology/ethnology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*epidemiology/virology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*immunology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*immunology/microbiolog
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*immunology/pathology/v
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*immunology/transmissio
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*microbiology/pathology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*physiopathology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/*virology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood/*microbiology/pat
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis/*drug therapy
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/etiology/pathology/*pre
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/genetics/*immunology/th
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/genetics/*immunology/vi
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/genetics/immunology/*vi
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology/*microbiolog
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/microbiology/*veterinar
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections: microbiology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections: physiopathology
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections: virology
  • Cytomegalovirus Retinitis/*immunology
  • Cytomegalovirus/*genetics
  • Cytomegalovirus/*immunology
  • Cytomegalovirus/*immunology/isolation & purificati
  • Cytomegalovirus/*immunology/physiology
  • Cytomegalovirus/*isolation & purification/pathogen
  • Cytomegalovirus/*pathogenicity
  • Cytomegalovirus/*physiology
  • Cytomegalovirus/genetics/*immunology
  • Cytomegalovirus/genetics/*isolation & purification
  • Cytomegalovirus/genetics/*metabolism/physiology
  • Cytomegalovirus/genetics/isolation & purification
  • Cytomegalovirus/genetics/isolation & purification/
  • Cytomegalovirus/genetics/metabolism/*pathogenicity
  • Cytomegalovirus/immunology
  • Cytomegalovirus/immunology/*isolation & purificati
  • Cytomegalovirus/immunology/*physiology
  • Cytomegalovirus/immunology/pathogenicity/physiolog
  • Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification/*physiolo
  • Cytomegalovirus: isolation & purification
  • Cytomegalovirus: physiology
  • Cytotoxic/*immunology
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Cytotoxicity Tests
  • DNA
  • DNA Helicases/genetics
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA/*methods
  • DNA/metabolism
  • Deep sequencing
  • Demography
  • Dendritic Cells/*immunology/physiology
  • Dendritic Cells/classification/immunology/patholog
  • Dendritic Cells/cytology/virology
  • Dendritic Cells/immunology/metabolism/virology
  • Dendritic Cells/virology
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential
  • Differentiation/genetics/*immunology
  • Disease Models
  • Disease Progression
  • Dose-Response Relationship
  • Drug Resistance
  • Drug resistance
  • Endopeptidases/*metabolism
  • Endothelial Cells/*virology
  • Epithelial Cells/*virology
  • Exons
  • Eye/*virology
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts
  • Fibroblasts/metabolism
  • Fibroblasts/virology
  • Fibroblasts: physiology
  • Fibroblasts: virology
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
  • Fluorescence
  • Foscarnet/adverse effects/therapeutic use
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Gamma Rays
  • Ganciclovir/adverse effects/therapeutic use
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases/*physiopathology/virolog
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genes
  • Genetic
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome
  • Genomics
  • Genotype
  • Glycoproteins/chemistry
  • Glycoproteins/genetics/*metabolism
  • Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics/metabolism
  • H-Y Antigen/immunology/metabolism
  • Hemagglutination Tests
  • Hemagglutinins
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells: virology
  • Hemolysin Proteins/biosynthesis
  • Hepatitis
  • Hepatocytes/virology
  • Herpes Simplex/genetics/immunology/virology
  • Herpes virus
  • Herpesviridae Infections
  • Herpesviridae Infections/*immunology
  • Herpesviridae Infections/*immunology/mortality/pat
  • Herpesviridae Infections/*pathology/*virology
  • Herpesviridae Infections/*virology
  • Herpesviridae Infections/genetics/*immunology/mort
  • Herpesviridae Infections/immunology/virology
  • Herpesviridae Infections: blood
  • Herpesviridae Infections: immunology
  • Herpesviridae Infections: pathology
  • Herpesviridae Infections: virology
  • Herpesviridae/*classification/genetics
  • Herpesviridae/*genetics
  • Herpesviridae/*physiology
  • Herpesviridae/classification/*genetics/isolation &
  • Herpesvirus 1
  • Hexosaminidases
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/*immunology/me
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/physiology
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Histone Deacetylases: immunology
  • Horses
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions: immunology
  • Human cytomegalovirus
  • Human/genetics/immunology/pathogeni
  • Humans
  • Immediate-Early
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • Immediate-Early Proteins/*immunology
  • Immediate-Early Proteins/metabolism
  • Immediate-Early Proteins: genetics
  • Immune evasion
  • Immunity
  • Immunization
  • Immunoglobulin Class Switching
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunologic
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics/virology
  • Immunologic Surveillance
  • Immunologic/deficiency/genetics/*immuno
  • Immunological
  • Immunology
  • Immunosuppression
  • Immunosuppressive Agents/*biosynthesis
  • Immunosurveillance
  • Inbred BALB C
  • Inbred C3H
  • Inbred C57BL
  • Inbred DBA
  • Inbred Strains
  • Infant
  • Infectious disease
  • Infectious/epidemiology/e
  • Infectious/immunology
  • Infectious/physiopatholog
  • Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins
  • Innate
  • Innate/*genetics
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Interferon Type I/*metabolism
  • Interferon alpha-beta
  • Interferon-alpha/*biosynthesis
  • Interferon-alpha/*physiology
  • Interferon-beta/*physiology
  • Interferon-beta/biosynthesis/*physiology
  • Interferon-gamma/analysis
  • Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis
  • Interferon-gamma/pharmacology
  • Interferon-gamma/physiology
  • Interferon/deficiency/genetics/physiolo
  • Interferons
  • Interleukin-12/biosynthesis
  • Isogeneic
  • Killer Cells
  • Knockout
  • Larva/virology
  • Lectins
  • Leukocytes/microbiology
  • Ligands
  • Lipase/blood
  • Liquid
  • Liver/*microbiology/pathology
  • Liver/immunology/pathology
  • Liver/pathology
  • Liver/pathology/virology
  • Liver/virology
  • Lung Diseases
  • Lung Diseases: virology
  • Lung/*microbiology
  • Lung/*virology
  • Lung/immunology/microbiology
  • Lung/microbiology
  • Lung/pathology
  • Ly/genetics
  • Lymph Nodes/immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Lymphocyte Activation/immunology
  • Lymphocyte Depletion
  • Lymphocyte Depletion/adverse effects
  • Lymphocyte Subsets
  • Lymphocyte Subsets/*immunology
  • Lymphocyte Subsets/*immunology/metabolism/*patholo
  • Lymphocytes/immunology
  • Lymphopenia/genetics/immunology/pathology
  • Lymphotoxin alpha1
  • Lymphotoxin beta Receptor
  • Lymphotoxin beta Receptor/*metabolism
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha/*immunology
  • Lymphotoxin-alpha/deficiency/genetics/*physiology
  • Lymphotoxin-beta
  • Macrophages
  • Macrophages/*microbiology
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex
  • Male
  • Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosamin
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Membrane Proteins/*immunology
  • Membrane Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*physiology
  • Membrane Proteins/genetics
  • Messenger/analysis
  • Messenger/biosynthesis
  • Messenger/genetics/metabolism
  • Mice
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Microscopy
  • Middle Aged
  • Models
  • Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Murine cytomegalovirus
  • Muromegalovirus
  • Muromegalovirus/*genetics
  • Muromegalovirus/*genetics/physiology
  • Muromegalovirus/*immunology
  • Muromegalovirus/*immunology/*pathogenicity
  • Muromegalovirus/*isolation & purification
  • Muromegalovirus/*physiology
  • Muromegalovirus/genetics/*growth & development/ult
  • Muromegalovirus/genetics/*immunology/pathogenicity
  • Muromegalovirus/genetics/immunology/*pathogenicity
  • Muromegalovirus: genetics
  • Muromegalovirus: isolation & purification
  • Muromegalovirus: physiology
  • Mutant Strains
  • Mutation
  • Myeloid Cells/cytology/*virology
  • Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
  • NK Cell Lectin-Like
  • NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A
  • NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A/*immunolo
  • NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A/*physiolo
  • Natural
  • Natural Killer T-Cells/*immunology/metabolism/*vir
  • Natural/*immunology
  • Natural/*immunology/metabolism/virol
  • Natural/immunology
  • Necrosis
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Neutralizing/immunology
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Northern
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins: immunology
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology
  • Oligonucleotide Probes
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Organ Specificity
  • Organ Transplantation/*adverse effects
  • Organizations
  • Ostreidae/*virology
  • Pancreas/microbiology/pathology
  • Passive
  • Pathogenesis
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pneumonia
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
  • Pre-emptive therapy
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • Prevalence
  • Promoter Regions
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
  • Proteins/*chemistry
  • Proteins/genetics
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis/*immunology/microbiology
  • Pyrophosphatases/genetics
  • RNA
  • RNA Splicing
  • Receptor
  • Receptor Cross-Talk
  • Receptors
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Recombinant/analysis
  • Recombination
  • Recurrence
  • Reporter
  • Reporter/genetics
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Ribonuclease P/*metabolism
  • Risk Factors
  • Rodentia
  • Salivary Glands
  • Salivary Glands/microbiology
  • Salivary Glands: virology
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Serologic Tests
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Signal Transducing
  • Signal Transducing/deficiency/ge
  • Signal Transducing: immunology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Signal Transduction/genetics/immunology
  • Simplexvirus/genetics/*metabolism
  • Solubility
  • Southern
  • Species Specificity
  • Spleen
  • Spleen/*immunology
  • Spleen/*immunology/microbiology
  • Spleen/*microbiology/ultrastructure
  • Spleen/immunology
  • Spleen/microbiology
  • Spleen/microbiology/pathology
  • Spleen/pathology/virology
  • Spleen/virology
  • Spleen: microbiology
  • Spleen: pathology
  • Splenectomy
  • Stromal Cells/*immunology/metabolism
  • Surface
  • Surface: analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • T-Lymphocytes/*immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes/immunology
  • Threshold
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2/deficiency/genetics/immunolog
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3/deficiency/genetics/immunolog
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4/deficiency/genetics/immunolog
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9/deficiency/genetics/immunolog
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9/physiology
  • Transaminases/blood
  • Transcriptomics
  • Transfection
  • Transgenic
  • Transplantation
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/*immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/deficiency/genetics/ph
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor/deficiency/geneti
  • United States/epidemiology/ethnology
  • Viraemia
  • Viral
  • Viral Load
  • Viral Plaque Assay
  • Viral Plaque Assay: methods
  • Viral Proteins/*chemistry
  • Viral Proteins/*immunology
  • Viral Proteins/*metabolism
  • Viral Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
  • Viral Proteins/immunology
  • Viral Proteins/metabolism
  • Viral/*chemistry/*genetics
  • Viral/*genetics
  • Viral/*immunology
  • Viral/*immunology/microbiology
  • Viral/*isolation & purification
  • Viral/analysis
  • Viral/analysis/blood/genetics
  • Viral/analysis/metabolism
  • Viral/biosynthesis
  • Viral/blood
  • Viral/genetics
  • Viral/immunology
  • Viral/metabolism
  • Viral: analysis
  • Virion/*metabolism
  • Virology
  • Virulence
  • Virus Activation
  • Virus Diseases/*immunology
  • Virus Diseases/immunology
  • Virus Internalization
  • Virus Latency
  • Virus Latency/*physiology
  • Virus Replication
  • Virus Replication/*physiology
  • Virus Replication/immunology
  • Virus Shedding
  • Western
  • beta 2-Microglobulin/analysis
  • beta-Galactosidase/metabolism
  • beta2 Heterotrimer/deficiency/
  • control

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Authors

  • A Alcami

  • Ulrich H. Koszinowski

  • D Atanasiu

  • J C Whitbeck

  • T M Cairns

  • B Reilly

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