Kluyveromyces lactis is both scientifically and biotechnologically one of the most important non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Its biotechnological significance builds on its history of safe use in the food industry and its well-known ability to produce enzymes like lactase and bovine chymosin on an industrial scale. In this article, we review the various strains, genetic techniques and molecular tools currently available for the use of K. lactis as a host for protein expression. Additionally, we present data illustrating the recent use of proteomics studies to identify cellular bottlenecks that impede heterologous protein expression.
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