In this paper, we aim to gain insight into the determinants of the involvement in housework and family business work of children 8-13 by analyzing representative household data with information for over 150, 000 children living in 180 districts in 13 developing countries in Africa and Asia. Using multilevel analysis, we explain the variation on the basis of socio-economic, demographic and cultural factors at the household, district and national level. We find that the engagement in housework and family work is influenced by socio-economic factors like wealth and the ownership of land and cattle, but demographic factors also play a large role. Context factors, such as living in a rural area or the district level of development also influence the engagement in housework and family work directly. Interestingly, children living in unprofitable situations do not always profit from living in favourable circumstances. This requires more attention for future research and policy makers.
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