7(1/2) and 12 months and 1(1/2) and 7(1/2) months old children; (2) the female-male MR among trial children having received HBV plus measles vaccine or only measles vaccine. RESULTS: In cohorts not receiving HBV, the MR for children 7(1/2)-12 and 1(1/2)-7(1/2) months of age was 0.97 "95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-1.24", whereas the MR was 1.62 (95% CI 1.09-2.41) in the cohort receiving HBV at 7(1/2) months (test of homogeneity, P = 0.030). Among children enrolled in the measles vaccination trial, HBV-vaccinated children 7(1/2)-12 months of age had higher mortality than both prior and subsequent cohorts who had not received HBV (MR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.19-2.75), the difference being particularly strong for girls (MR=2.27; 95% CI 1.31-3.94). In the cohort who had received both HBV and measles vaccine, the female-male MR between 9 and 24 months of age was 2.20 (95% CI 1.07-4.54) compared with 0.96 (95% CI 0.70-1.32) in trial participants who had received measles vaccine only (test for homogeneity, P = 0.040). With longer follow-up, these tendencies remained the same. CONCLUSIONS: These comparisons suggested changes in the mortality pattern after the introduction of HBV, particularly for girls. Hence in areas with high mortality, HBV may affect girls' and boys' susceptibility to infections differently.
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