Higher education and women's empowerment in Pakistan

  • Malik S
  • Courtney K
  • 73


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 18


    Citations of this article.


This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded. Subsequently, semi-structured interviews were held with 10 faculty members and 10 students. Respondents highlighted economic independence and an increased standing within family and society as the main benefits of higher education participation. A major finding is that participation in higher education enables women to impact on a number of discriminatory practices simultaneously and thereby effect change for the better. The main recommendation is that future educational strategies be developed with the aim of further promoting gender equality in all areas of education in Pakistan, but particularly with the aim of increasing female students' participation in higher education. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Educational strategies
  • Empowerment
  • Gender gap
  • Gender parity
  • Higher education
  • Pakistan
  • South Asia

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text


  • Samina Malik

  • Kathy Courtney

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free