Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children’s Study

  • Yajnik C
  • Katre P
  • Joshi S
 et al. 
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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. METHODS: We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. RESULTS: Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Childhood insulin resistance
  • Diabetes
  • Indians
  • Young adults

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  • Chittaranjan S. Yajnik

  • Prachi A. Katre

  • Suyog M. Joshi

  • Kalyanaraman Kumaran

  • Dattatray S. Bhat

  • Himangi G. Lubree

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