Highly photoactive Ti-doped [small alpha]-Fe2O3 thin film electrodes: resurrection of the dead layer

  • Wu C
  • Leroux J
  • Gauthier M
 et al. 
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Abstract

Uniform thin films of hematite and Ti-doped hematite ([small alpha]-Fe2O3) were deposited on transparent conductive substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD{'}s epitaxial growth mechanism allowed the control of the morphology and thickness of the hematite films as well as the concentration and distribution of Ti atoms. The photoelectrochemical performances of Ti-doped and undoped hematite electrodes were examined and compared under water oxidation conditions. The incorporation of Ti atoms into hematite electrodes was found to dramatically enhance the water oxidation performance{,} with much greater enhancement found for the thinnest films. An optimum concentration [similar]3 atomic% of Ti atoms was also determined. A series of electrochemical{,} photoelectrochemical and impedance spectroscopy measurements were employed to elucidate the cause of the improved photoactivity of the Ti-doped hematite thin films. This performance enhancement was a combination of improved bulk properties (hole collection length) and surface properties (water oxidation efficiency). The improvement in both bulk and surface properties is attributed to the resurrection of a dead layer by the Ti dopant atoms.

Author-supplied keywords

  • 1
  • 1 hydrogen production by
  • 1D nanostructure arrays
  • 2 à 6 although
  • ??-Fe\n 2O
  • AAO
  • AZO/TiO2 core/shell nanocone arrays
  • AgatTiO2 nanocapsule structures
  • Alumina
  • Anodization
  • Anodizing
  • Anorod arrays
  • Band gap tailoring
  • Bismuth
  • Bismuth: chemistry
  • CALCIUM NIOBATE NANOSHEETS
  • CHARGE-CARRIER DYNAMICS
  • COLLOIDAL REDOX CATALYSTS
  • CS
  • Co3O4
  • Component controllable synthesis
  • Degenerate modes
  • Dopant
  • Electrochemical Techniques
  • Electrochemical Techniques: methods
  • Electrochemical impedance
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrodeposition
  • Electrodes
  • Electron
  • Electron microscopy
  • Fe incorporation
  • Ferrofluid
  • Fluorine doping
  • GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE
  • Hematite
  • Honeycomb structure
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen evolution reaction
  • Hydrogen production
  • Hydrogen: chemistry
  • Hydrothermal route
  • IPCE
  • ITO
  • Ion batteries
  • Ionic transport
  • Iron oxide
  • LBL
  • LOADED STRONTIUM-TITANATE
  • Light
  • Lithography
  • MFC
  • Magnetic field
  • Magnetite
  • Microscopy
  • Modification
  • Morphology
  • NONE
  • Nanofluid
  • Nanostructures
  • Nanowire
  • Nanowires
  • OXYGEN-EVOLVING CATALYST
  • Ordered nanostructure arrays
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxides
  • PHOTOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN-PRODUCTION
  • Photocatalysis
  • Photocatalytic activity
  • Photochemical Processes
  • Photochemistry
  • Photochemistry: methods
  • Photoelectrochemical water splitting
  • Photoelectrochemistry
  • Photoluminescence
  • Plasma enhanced-chemical vapor deposition
  • Porosity
  • Porous anodic alumina
  • Pyrite
  • Quantum dots
  • Refractive index
  • SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS
  • SOLAR-ENERGY CONVERSION
  • Scanning
  • Silicon
  • Silicon: chemistry
  • Sol-gel
  • Solar Energy
  • Solar Energy: utilization
  • Solar cells
  • Solar energy conversion
  • Solar hydrogen production
  • Supercapacitors
  • Surface Properties
  • Surface plasmon resonance
  • Ta2O5 films
  • Ta3N5 nanorods
  • Ta3n5 nanotubes
  • Tantalum oxide
  • Templates
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Thin films
  • Three dimensional
  • Ti-doped
  • TiO \n 2 nanotube array
  • TiO2 nanotube
  • TiO<inf>2</inf>
  • Ultrasound-assisted impregnation
  • VISIBLE-LIGHT IRRADIATION
  • Vanadates
  • Vanadates: chemistry
  • Visible-light
  • W doping
  • Water
  • Water chemistry
  • Water splitting
  • Water: chemistry
  • X-Ray Diffraction
  • Zinc
  • ag 3 po 4
  • aluminum
  • and akihiko kudo a
  • and is an example
  • anodization
  • atomic layer deposition (ALD)
  • b
  • bismuth
  • bismuth vanadate
  • bivo 4
  • by which the energy
  • carbon nanodots
  • charge separation
  • charge transfer
  • cloaked nanowire
  • cobalt
  • cobalt oxide
  • cocatalysis
  • cocatalysts
  • composition regulation
  • copper
  • core
  • core-shell
  • efficient bivo 4 thin
  • electrochemistry
  • electrodes
  • electrolysis of water
  • energy conversion
  • energy storage
  • fe 2 o 3
  • ferrihydrite
  • film electrode for water
  • gold
  • hematite
  • heterogeneous materials
  • honeycomb structure
  • hotoelectrochemical
  • hydrogen
  • hydrogen production
  • hydrogen using solar energy
  • hydrothermal synthesis
  • icle
  • ile fabrication of an
  • ince the discovery of
  • iron
  • iron oxide
  • ispr
  • katsuya iwashina a
  • layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles
  • layered double hydroxides
  • metal-organic framework
  • microarray
  • morphology engineering
  • morphology innovation
  • nano-hole array
  • nanocomposites
  • nanograting
  • nanoparticle heights
  • nanorod
  • nanorods
  • nanosheet arrays
  • nanostructure arrays
  • nanowire
  • nanowire array
  • nanowire arrays
  • nonlithographic route
  • o 2 evolution
  • of arti fi cial
  • of sunlight is converted
  • optically transparent
  • ordered nanoparticle arrays
  • oxygen evolution reaction
  • palladium
  • pec
  • photoanode
  • photocatalysis
  • photocatalytic activity
  • photochemistry
  • photocurrent
  • photoelectrocatalysis
  • photoelectrochemical
  • photoelectrochemical cell
  • photoelectrochemical cells
  • photoelectrochemical cells (PEC)
  • photoelectrochemical water splitting
  • photoelectrochemistry
  • photoelectrodes
  • photoelectrolysis
  • photoelectrolysis has been a
  • photosynthesis
  • plasmon-sensitized solar cells
  • plasmonic
  • plasmonic parameters
  • plasmonic solar cells
  • qingxin jia a
  • shell arrays
  • shell nanowire
  • solar energy
  • solar water splitting
  • solar-to-hydrogen
  • splitting under
  • spr
  • spr sensor
  • srtio 3
  • sub-wavelength
  • surface modification
  • surface plasmon
  • surface plasmon reso-
  • surface plasmon resonance
  • surface treatment
  • tandem cell
  • tantalum nitride
  • template
  • thin fi lm electrocatalyst
  • thin films
  • tio 2 composites
  • tio 2 nanotube
  • titania
  • to
  • topic of great interest
  • ultraviolet light
  • uniformly dispersed Au Nanoparticles
  • using n-type tio 2
  • vanadates
  • visible light irradiation
  • water
  • water splitting
  • water splitting produces
  • well-defined
  • wire grid polarizer
  • wo 3
  • zinc oxide nanorods
  • zno core
  • α-Fe2O3

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Authors

  • Chuanliu Wu

  • Jean-christophe Leroux

  • Marc A Gauthier

  • Yong-Sheng Yingfei Hu

  • Alan Kleiman-Shwarsctein

  • Galen D Stucky

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