The increased cap-independent translation of anti-apoptotic proteins is involved in the development of drug resistance in lung cancer but signalling events regulating this are poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) signalling-induced S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) activation is necessary, but the downstream mediator(s) coupling this kinase to the translational response is unknown. Here, we show that S6K2 binds and phosphorylates hnRNPA1 on novel Ser4/6 sites, increasing its association with BCL-XL and XIAP mRNAs to promote their nuclear export. In the cytoplasm, phosphoS4/6-hnRNPA1 dissociates from these mRNAs de-repressing their IRES-mediated translation. This correlates with the phosphorylation-dependent association of hnRNPA1 with 14-3-3 leading to hnRNPA1 sumoylation on K183 and its re-import into the nucleus. A non-phosphorylatible, S4/6A mutant prevented these processes, hindering the pro-survival activity of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of lung and breast cancer tissue samples demonstrated that increased S6K2 expression correlates with decreased cytoplasmic hnRNPA1 and increased BCL-XL expression. In short, phosphorylation on novel N-term sites of hnRNPA1 promotes translation of anti-apoptotic proteins and is indispensable for the pro-survival effects of FGF-2.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below