The ability to adjust sex ratios at the individual level exists among all vertebrate groups studied to date. In many cases, there is evidence for facultative adjustment of sex ratios in response to environmental and/or social cues. Because environmental and social information must be first transduced into a physiological signal to influence sex ratios, hormones likely play a role in the adjustment of sex ratio in vertebrates, because the endocrine system acts as a prime communicator that directs physiological activities in response to changing external conditions. This symposium was developed to bring together investigators whose work on adjustment of sex ratio represents a variety of vertebrate groups in an effort to draw comparisons between species in which the sex-determination process is well-established and those in which more work is needed to understand how adjustments in sex ratio are occurring. This review summarizes potential hormone targets that may underlie the mechanisms of adjustment of sex ratio in humans, non-human mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes.
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