One of the hallmarks of Trypanosoma cruzi invasion of non-professional phagocytes is facilitation of the process by host cell actin depolymerization. Host cell entry by invasive T. cruzi trypomastigotes is accomplished by exploiting a cellular wound repair process involving Ca2+-regulated lysosome exocytosis (i.e. lysosome-dependent) or by engaging a recently recognized lysosome-independent pathway. It was originally postulated that cortical actin microfilaments present a barrier to lysosome-plasma membrane fusion and that transient actin depolymerization enhances T. cruzi entry by increasing access to the plasma membrane for lysosome fusion. Here we demonstrate that cytochalasin D treatment of host cells inhibits early lysosome association with invading T. cruzi trypomastigotes by uncoupling the cell penetration step from lysosome recruitment and/or fusion. These findings provide the first indication that lysosome-dependent T. cruzi entry is initiated by plasma membrane invagination similar to that observed for lysosome-independent entry. Furthermore, prolonged disruption of host cell actin microfilaments results in significant loss of internalized parasites from infected host cells. Thus, the ability of internalized trypomastigotes to remain cell-associated and to fuse with host cell lysosomes is critically dependent upon host cell actin reassembly, revealing an unanticipated role for cellular actin remodelling in the T. cruzi invasion process.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below