Human Herpesviridae in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in children in Nigeria

  • Contreras A
  • Falkler W
  • Enwonwu C
 et al. 
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Abstract

Herpesviruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human periodontitis. The present study investigated whether herpesviruses are present in the lesions of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Sixty-two Nigerian children, aged 3-14 years, were studied. Twenty-two children had acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and were also malnourished, 20 exhibited no acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis but were malnourished and 20 were free of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and in a good nutritional state. Polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus type 1 and type 2 (EBV-1, EBV-2), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in crevicular fluid specimens collected by paper points. Of the 22 acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis patients, 15 (68%) revealed viral infection and 8 (36%) viral coinfection. Thirteen (59%) acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis patients demonstrated HCMV, 6 (27%) EBV-1, 5 (23%) HSV and 1 (5%) HHV-6. Only 2 (10%) subjects from each group not affected by acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis showed viral presence, and no control subject revealed viral coinfection. These findings suggest that HCMV and possibly other herpesviruses contribute to the onset and/or progression of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in malnourished Nigerian children.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  • Children
  • Crevicular fluid
  • Epstein-Barr virus type 1 and type 2
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Human cytomegalovirus
  • Human herpes virus 6
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Human papilloma virus
  • Nigeria
  • Polymerase chain reaction

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Authors

  • A. Contreras

  • W. A. Falkler

  • C. O. Enwonwu

  • E. O. Idigbe

  • K. O. Savage

  • M. B. Afolabi

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