In the last decade the hybrid procedure has emerged as an alternative stage I palliation in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). This review discusses the historical aspect, surgical and interventional techniques, current outcomes and future direction of this procedure. Hybrid palliation yields equivalent but not superior stage I palliation survival and comparable 1-year survival to conventional Norwood palliation, comparable prestage II hemodynamics and pulmonary artery growth, and preserved ventricular function in stage II palliation. Hybrid palliation utilizes significantly less resource and shortens postoperative recovery. In comprehensive stage II palliation the impact of pulmonary artery reconstruction on subsequent pulmonary artery growth has not been determined and should be further investigated. A prospective, randomized trial is warranted to compare these two surgical strategies for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
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