In recent years, increasing awareness of hypomagnesemia has resulted in clinical trials that associate this mineral deficiency with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and drug therapies for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, diagnostic testing for tissue deficiency of magnesium still presents a challenge. Investigations of animal and cellular responses to magnesium deficiency have found evidence of complex proinflammatory pathways that may lead to greater understanding of mediators of the pathobiology in neuronal, cardiovascular, intestinal, renal, and hematological tissues. The roles of free radicals, cytokines, neuropeptides, endotoxin, endogenous antioxidants, and vascular permeability, and interventions to limit the inflammatory response associated with these parameters, are outlined in basic studies of magnesium deficiency. It is hoped that this limited review of inflammation associated with some diseases complicated by magnesium deficiency will prompt greater awareness by clinicians and other health providers and in turn increase efforts to prevent and treat this disorder.
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