Hypostomus chrysostiktos, a new species of armored catfish of the family Loricariidae, is described. The most remarkable characteristic of the new species, which allows its prompt diagnosis from congeners, is the high number of branched rays in the dorsal fin (10-11). In addition, the new species can be diagnosed from the remaining Loricariidae by the combination of the following characters: slightly evertible cheek plates, four branched anal-fin rays, naked abdomen, and snout almost completely plated. The characters states shared by H. chrysostiktos and the tribe Hypostomini, which indicates it as belonging to that group, are: a hatched-shaped opercle, the anterior process of the pterotic-supracleitrum passing halfway the orbit, a pointed post-cleithral process, and slightly evertible cheek plates. The description of this armored catfish provides more evidence for the high level of endemism in the ichthyofauna of rio Paraguaçu basin, a coastal river of northeastern Brazil.
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