Over the past 10 years, significant progress has been made in understanding HIV-associated lymphomas and improving the prognosis of these diseases. With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy and the development of novel therapeutic strategies, most patients with HIV-associated lymphomas are cured. The outcome for the majority of patients with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma in particular, is excellent, with recent studies supporting the role of rituximab in these diseases. Indeed, in the combination antiretroviral therapy era, the curability of many patients with HIV-associated lymphoma is similar to their HIV-negative counterparts. New treatment frontiers need to focus on improving the outcome for patients with advanced immune suppression and for those with adverse tumor biology, such as the activated B-cell type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and the virally driven lymphomas. Future clinical trials need to investigate novel targeted agents alone and in combination with chemotherapy.
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