Increasingly in the field of medicine, new therapeutic modalities, both surgical and non-surgical, are being introduced. Some of these may significantly alter the pathological appearance of normal and neoplastic tissue and result in problems for the pathologist. In this review, iatrogenic pathology within the female genital tract is described, especially concentrating on the recent literature. Pathological artefacts within the female genital tract are also reviewed. Topics covered include mechanical displacement of normal and neoplastic elements into vascular or tissue spaces and thermal artefacts. Recently described pathological findings in neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue secondary to hormonal, chemotherapeutic and other medications are discussed. Changes associated with non-surgical management of uterine leiomyomas are also described. It behoves the pathologist to be aware of these iatrogenic lesions and artefacts in order to prevent diagnostic errors.
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