Icephobic Material Centrifuge Adhesion Test

  • Laforte C
  • Beisswenger A
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Abstract

Ice accumulation is a transportation problem for roads, boats, airplanes transmission lines, etc. An icephobic coating applied to exposed surfaces appears to be an interesting solution to prevent ice build-up; however, no coating is perfectly icephobic as ice sticks to everything. Still, some materials that reduce ice adhesion have been developed from which the ice can be more easily shed, possibly even with existing forces such as wind, gravity and vibrations. A method was therefore investigated to measure the ice adhesion and the reduction thereof. The method must be able to measure the force required to separate the ice from the substrate, i.e. adhesive failure and be a comparative method. Existing tests use traction or compressive forces, however, for such, the ice can only be made by freezing water as a block which leads to highly variable results: up to 300% error. To solve these limitations the Anti- icing Material International Laboratory (AMIL) developed the Centrifuge Adhesion Test. The test involves icing the extremity of small beams under supercooled precipitation. After icing, the beams are balanced in a centrifuge and rotated at an accelerating speed until the ice detaches. The ice detachment is picked up by piezoelectric cells located in the vat wall. The ice adhesion shear stress is then calculated from the ice detachment rotation speed. The results are then reported as an Adhesion Reduction Factor, which is the ratio of the adhesion shear stress of the beams with a candidate coating with respect to a simultaneously iced uncoated beam. Therefore, a bare beam would have a factor of one, the higher the factor the more icephobic the coating and values below one indicate and increase in adhesion. The advantages of this method include: the fact that the ice is made from supercooled precipitation and is representative# of atmospheric icing; the small ice samples allow for a homogeneous ice coupon which improves the repeatability of the results; the flat ice surface allows for modifications to the shape of the surface (e.g. cylinders and airfoils) and exposure of the surface to environmental elements

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Authors

  • C Laforte

  • A Beisswenger

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