Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), a recently discovered parvovirus found exclusively in human plasma and liver tissue, was considered phylogenetically distinct from other parvoviruses. Here, we report the discovery of two novel parvoviruses closely related to PARV4, porcine hokovirus (PHoV) and bovine hokovirus (BHoV), from porcine and bovine samples in Hong Kong. Their nearly full-length sequences were also analysed. PARV4-like viruses were detected by PCR among 44.4 % (148/333) of porcine samples (including lymph nodes, liver, serum, nasopharyngeal and faecal samples), 13 % (4/32) of bovine spleen samples and 2 % (7/362) of human serum samples that were sent for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus antibody tests. Three distinct parvoviruses were identified, including two novel parvoviruses, PHoV and BHoV, from porcine and bovine samples and PARV4 from humans, respectively. Analysis of genome sequences from seven PHoV strains, from three BHoV strains and from one PARV4 strain showed that the two animal parvoviruses were most similar to PARV4 with 61.5-63 % nt identities and, together with PARV4 (HHoV), formed a distinct cluster within the family Parvoviridae. The three parvoviruses also differed from other parvoviruses by their relatively large predicted VP1 protein and the presence of a small unique conserved putative protein. Based on these results, we propose a separate genus, Hokovirus, to describe these three parvoviruses. The co-detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, the agent associated with the recent 'high fever' disease outbreaks in pigs in China, from our porcine samples warrants further investigation.
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