Identification and quantitation of compounds in a series of allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice root exudates

  • Seal A
  • Pratley J
  • Haig T
 et al. 
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An investigation of the chemical basis for rice allelopathy to the rice weed arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) was undertaken using GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques. Twenty-five compounds were isolated and identified from the root exudates of both allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice varieties. Phenolics, phenylalkanoic acids, and indoles were among the chemical classes identified. Two indoles previously unreported in rice were detected in the exudates, 5-hydroxy-2-indolecarboxylic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Several other compounds identified in this study have not previously been reported in rice root exudates, namely mercaptoacetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 4-vinylphenol. The levels of 15 compounds present in the exudates were quantified using GC/MS/MS. Six of the seven most abundant compounds were phenolic acids. Significant differences exist between the allelopathic and non-allelopathic cultivars in their production of three of these six compounds. Greater amounts of trans-ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid were detected in the exudates of allelopathic cultivars. The seventh compound, abietic acid, was significantly higher in the non-allelopathic cultivars.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Allelochemicals
  • Sagittaria montevidensis
  • hydroxamic acids
  • hydroxystyrenes
  • phenolic acids
  • quantitation
  • rice
  • root exudates
  • vinylphenols
  • weed suppression

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  • Alexa N. Seal

  • James E. Pratley

  • Terry Haig

  • Min An

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