Identification of TCT, a novel knockdown resistance allele mutation and analysis of resistance detection methods in the voltage-gated Na+channel of Culex pipiens pallens from Shandong Province, China

  • Liu H
  • Cheng P
  • Huang X
 et al. 
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The present study aimed to investigate deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (C. pipiens pallens) mosquitoes and its correlation with knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations. In addition, mosquitoresistance testing methods were analyzed. Using specific primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and allele-specific (AS)-PCR, kdr gene sequences isolated from wild C. pipiens pallens mosquitoes were sequenced. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the mutations and deltamethrin resistance. A kdr allelic gene was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the DNA sequences revealed the presence of two point mutations at the L1014 residue in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the voltagegated sodium channel (VGSC): L1014F, TTA-->TTT, replacing a leucine (L) with a phenylalanine (F); L1014S, TTA-->TCA, replacing leucine (L) with serine (S). Two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014F and L1014S, were identified to be positively correlated with the deltamethrin-resistant phenotype. In addition a novel mutation, TCT, was identified in the VGSC of C. pipiens pallens. PCR and AS-PCR yielded consistent results with respect to mosquito resistance. However, the detection rate of PCR was higher than that of AS-PCR. Further studies are required to determine the specific resistance mechanism. PCR and AS-PCR demonstrated suitability for mosquito resistance field tests, however, the former method may be superior to the latter.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction technique
  • Culex pipiens pallens
  • Knockdown resistance alleles
  • Resistance mechanism

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  • Hong Mei Liu

  • Peng Cheng

  • Xiaodan Huang

  • Yu Hua Dai

  • Hai Fang Wang

  • Li Juan Liu

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