A novel method to differentiate diet-induced alterations in plasma lipid phenotypes "static (concentration of lipids) and kinetic (endogenous production, e.g., denovo lipogenesis)" was employed. C57Bl6 mice were randomized into 2 groups and fed either a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) or a carbohydrate-free, high-fat diet (HF) diet for 13 days; D(2)O was administered via intraperitoneal injection and then adding D(2)O to the drinking water for 96 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed differences in the plasma lipid content, for example, triglycerides (TG) 50:2, 50:3, and 52:2 were up-regulated in mice fed the HC diet, whereas TG 52:4, 52:1, 54:5, 54:3, 54:4, and 54:2 were higher in animals fed the HF diet. However, although the fractional contribution of synthesis was ~10-fold lower in HF vs HC fed mice, changes in TG concentration were not entirely mediated by altered de novo lipogenesis. In addition, the ability to couple isotope labeling measurements with PCA analyses revealed cases where there were no differences in the concentration of a compound but its source was substantially altered. In summary, this strategy determined (i) the presence/absence of differences in concentration and (ii) the contribution of different pathways and synthesis that could affect lipid biology in a mouse model respectively.
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