The oxidation of guanine to 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2-1h) is shown to be a major transformation in the oxidation of the single-stranded DNA 5-mer d(TTGTT) by m-chloroperbenzoic acid (m-CPBA) and dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) as a model for peracid oxidants and in the oxidation of the 5-base pair duplex d[(TTGTT) center dot (AACAA)] with DMDO. 2-1h has not been reported as an oxidative lesion at the level of single/double-stranded DNA or at the nucleoside/nucleotide level. The lesion is stable to DNA digestion and chromatographic purification, suggesting that 2-1h may be a stable biomarker in vivo. The oxidation products have been structurally characterized and the reaction mechanism has been probed by oxidation of the monomeric species dGuo, dGMP, and dGTP. DMDC) selectively oxidizes the guanine moiety of dGuo, dGMP, and dGTP to 2-1h, and both peracetic and m-chloroperbenzoic acids exhibit the same selectivity. The presence of the glycosidic bond results in the stereoselective induction of an asymmetric center at the Spiro carbon to give a mixture of diastereomers, with each diastereomer in equilibrium with a minor conformer through rotation about the formamido C-N bond. Labeling studies with [O-18(2)]-m-CPBA and (H2O)-O-18 to determine the source of the added oxygen atoms have established initial epoxidation of the guanine 4-5 bond with pyrimidine ring contraction by an acyl 1,2-migration of guanine carbonyl C6 to form a transient dehydrodeoxyspiroiminodihydantoin followed by hydrolytic ring-opening of the imidazolone ring. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, no 8-oxoguanine was detected as a product of the oxidations of the oligonucleotides or monomeric species mediated by DMDO or the peracids. The 2-1h base thus appears to be a pathway-specific lesion generated by peracids and possibly other epoxidizing agents and holds promise as a potential biomarker.
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