We show that CombiMatrix's VLSI arrays of individually addressable electrodes, using conventional CMOS integrated circuitry, can be used in detecting various analytes via immunoassay protocols. These microarrays provide over 1000 electrodes per square centimeter. The chips are coated with a porous material on which specific affinity tags are synthesized proximate to selected electrode sites. CombiMatrix microarrays are used to develop spatially multiplexed assay formats for biological entities over a wide range of sizes, from small molecules to cells. Antibodies are tagged with coded affinity labels and then allowed to self-assemble on the appropriate electrode assay sites. Each analyte-specific antibody is chaperoned to individual, predetermined locations by the self-assembly process. The resulting chip can perform numerous different analyte-specific immunoassays, simultaneously. We present new detection technologies based upon the use of the active individually addressable microelectrodes on the chip: redox enzyme amplified electrochemical detection. The results for human alpha1 acid glycoprotein, ricin, M13 phage, Bacillus globigii spores, and fluorescein indicate that this method is one of the most sensitive available, with limits of detection in the attomole range. The detection range is 4-5 logs of analyte concentration, with an assay volume of 50 microl or less. The system provides for a host of multiplexed immunoassays because of the large number of electrodes available. We show how the assays can be optimized for maximum performance on the CombiMatrix microarray platform.
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