Background: Academic detailing in nursing homes (NHs) has been shown to improve drug use patterns and adherence to guidelines. Objective:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary intervention that included academic detailing on adherence to national nursing homeacquired pneumonia (NHAP) guidelines related to use of antibiotics. Methods: This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 2-year multifaceted and multidisciplinary intervention targeting implementation of national evidence-based guidelines for NHAP. Interventions took place in 8 NHs in Colorado; 8 NHs in Kansas and Missouri served as controls. Interventions included (1) educational sessions for nurses to improve recognition and timely treatment of NHAP symptoms and (2) academic detailing to clinicians by pharmacists regarding diagnostic and prescribing practices. Differences in antibiotic use between groups were compared after 2 intervention years relative to baseline. Results: A total of 549 episodes of NHAP were evaluated in the intervention group and 574 in the control group. Compared with baseline, 1 facility in the intervention group significantly improved in guideline adherence for optimal antibiotic use (P = 0.007), whereas no facilities in the control group improved. The mean adherence score for optimal antibiotic use in intervention NHs increased from 60% to 66%, whereas the control NHs increased from 32% to 39% (P = 0.3). Mean adherence to guidelines recommending antibiotic use within 4 hours of NHAP diagnosis increased from 57% to 75% in intervention NHs but decreased from 38% to 31% in control NHs (P = 0.0003 for difference). There was no difference between intervention and control NHs for guideline adherence regarding optimal duration of antibiotic use. Conclusions: The ability of this multifaceted study to repeatedly remind nursing staff of the importance of timely antibiotic administration contrasts with its limited academic detailing interaction with clinicians. This difference within the intervention may explain the differential impact of the intervention on antibiotic guideline adherence. © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
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