This review examines the available literature on neuropsychological outcomes of stroke and the literature on the ability of specific areas of neuropsychological deficit to predict functional stroke outcome. The literature reviewed indicates that post-stroke deficits in executive function, memory, language, and speed of processing are common, with those identified as having progressive 'post-stroke dementia' presenting with a similar, though more impaired profile, with increased impairments particularly noted in the area of memory. It is clear that some aspects of neuropsychological functioning (e.g., presence of neglect, aphasia, anosognosia; and verbal memory and attention deficits) show promise as a means of predicting post-stroke functional outcomes. Examining the available literature, it becomes evident that there is a need for long-term, large scale (i.e., population based) follow-up studies, evaluating likely long-term neuropsychological outcomes of stroke and their prognostic utility.
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