Neuroprostheses electrically stimulate paralyzed muscles to provide functional enhancement for individuals with neurological disorders, especially among persons with spinal cord injuries. Fully implanted neuroprostheses are reliable, require minimal maintenance and are user-friendly. These systems provide a variety of functions, including reaching, hand grasp and release, standing and stepping, bladder and bowel function and respiratory assist. Based on a representative review of the literature, this article presents and evaluates the development, clinical implementation and clinical efficacy and effectiveness of the various implanted neuroprostheses. Directions for future development are also presented.
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