Using longitudinal data, this study explored the protective effect of a school bond (on violent and nonviolent delinquency) across a variety of risk factors. A strong school bond protected children with early aggression from continuing on in violence 2 years later. A strong school bond also protected children with numerous environmental risks from violent and nonviolent offending. Finally, a strong school bond acted as a protective factor against the influence of peers who were delinquent (for nonviolent offending only). From a policy perspective, these findings suggest that zero-tolerance polices that aim to exclude children considered to be a problem through suspensions or expulsions could be counterproductive.
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